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中药材种植产业高质量发展步伐加快

2021-08-10 10:37:45   来源:本站   作者:本站    浏览人数:

中(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)(yao)材种(zhong)植(zhi)业(ye)(ye)是中(zhong)(zhong)医药(yao)(yao)产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)发展(zhan)的物质基础(chu),规(gui)范、保护和发展(zhan)中(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)(yao)材种(zhong)植(zhi)业(ye)(ye)可以推(tui)动中(zhong)(zhong)医药(yao)(yao)产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)链各(ge)环(huan)节的高质量发展(zhan)。根据国家统计局2021年3月发布的《农(nong)业(ye)(ye)及(ji)相关产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)统计分(fen)类(2020)》,中(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)(yao)材种(zhong)植(zhi)是指(zhi)主要用于中(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)(yao)配(pei)制以及(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)成药(yao)(yao)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的各(ge)种(zhong)中(zhong)(zhong)草药(yao)(yao)材作(zuo)物的种(zhong)植(zhi)活动。中(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)(yao)材种(zhong)植(zhi)产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)上游(you)环(huan)节依(yi)托化(hua)学农(nong)药(yao)(yao)、肥料(liao)及(ji)土壤处理、园艺等(deng)(deng)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)或服务,经过(guo)育苗、种(zhong)植(zhi)、生产(chan)(chan)管理、采收与(yu)粗加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)等(deng)(deng)环(huan)节,向下游(you)环(huan)节的中(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)(yao)饮片(pian)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)、中(zhong)(zhong)成药(yao)(yao)制造、保健食品(pin)研(yan)发制造等(deng)(deng)提(ti)供原料(liao),并(bing)最终为中(zhong)(zhong)医医院、药(yao)(yao)材市场等(deng)(deng)消费终端提(ti)供产(chan)(chan)品(pin)。

中药材种植业 中药材种植产业

政(zheng)策助推产(chan)业发展

近年(nian)来,国家(jia)层面出(chu)台了(le)一系列政(zheng)策规范中(zhong)药(yao)材(cai)种植(zhi)产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan),聚(ju)(ju)焦(jiao)“标(biao)准化(hua)(hua)(hua)、集(ji)聚(ju)(ju)化(hua)(hua)(hua)、品(pin)牌化(hua)(hua)(hua)”,即通(tong)过(guo)推(tui)动(dong)中(zhong)药(yao)材(cai)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)原产(chan)(chan)地(di)认证、建设(she)(she)中(zhong)药(yao)材(cai)追溯系统、支(zhi)持道地(di)药(yao)材(cai)生产(chan)(chan)基(ji)(ji)地(di)建设(she)(she)等(deng)举措,实(shi)现(xian)中(zhong)药(yao)材(cai)种植(zhi)标(biao)准化(hua)(hua)(hua)、规范化(hua)(hua)(hua)发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan);通(tong)过(guo)推(tui)动(dong)建设(she)(she)优势特(te)色(se)产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)集(ji)群(qun)、认定认证一批(pi)道地(di)药(yao)材(cai)生产(chan)(chan)基(ji)(ji)地(di)等(deng)举措,实(shi)现(xian)中(zhong)药(yao)材(cai)种植(zhi)集(ji)聚(ju)(ju)化(hua)(hua)(hua)发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan);通(tong)过(guo)启动(dong)中(zhong)药(yao)材(cai)“三品(pin)一标(biao)”(无公害农(nong)(nong)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)、绿色(se)食(shi)品(pin)、有机农(nong)(nong)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)和农(nong)(nong)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)地(di)理标(biao)志)行动(dong)示范基(ji)(ji)地(di)建设(she)(she),实(shi)现(xian)中(zhong)药(yao)材(cai)种植(zhi)品(pin)牌化(hua)(hua)(hua)、标(biao)准化(hua)(hua)(hua)发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)。

“十三五”时(shi)期至今,四川(chuan)、江西、安徽等省份纷(fen)纷(fen)出台产业规划和(he)政策措施(shi),推动中药(yao)材标准化规模化种植,提升道地中药(yao)材质量,加(jia)强野生中药(yao)材资(zi)源保护(hu)。

根据2018年(nian)农(nong)(nong)(nong)业(ye)(ye)农(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)(cun)部、国(guo)家药(yao)(yao)(yao)监(jian)局、国(guo)家中(zhong)医药(yao)(yao)(yao)管理局印(yin)发(fa)的《全国(guo)道(dao)(dao)地药(yao)(yao)(yao)材生产基(ji)地建(jian)设规(gui)划(hua)(2018-2025年(nian))》,到2025年(nian),规(gui)划(hua)建(jian)设的东北、华(hua)北、华(hua)东、华(hua)中(zhong)、华(hua)南(nan)、西南(nan)、西北七大产区道(dao)(dao)地药(yao)(yao)(yao)材生产基(ji)地面积(ji)达178万公(gong)顷以(yi)上。此外,为提升农(nong)(nong)(nong)业(ye)(ye)全产业(ye)(ye)链现代(dai)化水(shui)平,2021年(nian)农(nong)(nong)(nong)业(ye)(ye)农(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)(cun)部、财政部支(zhi)持(chi)创(chuang)建(jian)优(you)势特(te)色产业(ye)(ye)集(ji)群(qun),河北燕(yan)山(shan)太(tai)行山(shan)道(dao)(dao)地中(zhong)药(yao)(yao)(yao)材产业(ye)(ye)集(ji)群(qun)、浙江浙八味道(dao)(dao)地药(yao)(yao)(yao)材产业(ye)(ye)集(ji)群(qun)、河南(nan)怀药(yao)(yao)(yao)产业(ye)(ye)集(ji)群(qun)与湖(hu)南(nan)湘九味中(zhong)药(yao)(yao)(yao)材产业(ye)(ye)集(ji)群(qun)4个优(you)势特(te)色产业(ye)(ye)集(ji)群(qun)入选创(chuang)建(jian)名(ming)单。

 

多因素(su)驱(qu)动规模扩大

随(sui)着居民消费水平的(de)提高,健康消费的(de)升级,尤其(qi)是(shi)在“治(zhi)未病”等健康理念推动下,消费者对预防、保健、康复类的(de)中(zhong)(zhong)医药产品与服务需求增加,中(zhong)(zhong)药材种植行业迎来发展机遇。

近(jin)年(nian)来(lai),在中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)医药(yao)(yao)(yao)临(lin)床疗效明显(xian)、药(yao)(yao)(yao)物创(chuang)新政策(ce)激励、人均医疗卫(wei)生消费支出(chu)提高等因素的驱动(dong)下(xia),我国(guo)(guo)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)(yao)(yao)材(cai)市场需求(qiu)持续增长。国(guo)(guo)家(jia)统(tong)计(ji)局相关数据显(xian)示(shi),截至2021年(nian)6月底,全国(guo)(guo)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)(yao)(yao)材(cai)种植类(lei)企业超(chao)(chao)过20万家(jia),其(qi)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)注册(ce)资本在5000万元以上(shang)的企业超(chao)(chao)过3500家(jia)。目前,全国(guo)(guo)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)(yao)(yao)材(cai)种植面积突(tu)破300万公(gong)顷(qing),其(qi)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)河南、湖北等省(sheng)份种植面积超(chao)(chao)过10万公(gong)顷(qing)。2015年(nian)-2019年(nian),全国(guo)(guo)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)(yao)(yao)材(cai)市场成交额(e)增长超(chao)(chao)过751亿(yi)(yi)元;2019年(nian),全国(guo)(guo)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)(yao)(yao)材(cai)市场成交额(e)突(tu)破1650亿(yi)(yi)元,预(yu)计(ji)2021年(nian)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)(yao)(yao)材(cai)市场成交额(e)将逼近(jin)2000亿(yi)(yi)元大(da)关。

人工智能、大(da)数据(ju)等新一代信息技(ji)术为中药(yao)材产业信息化(hua)发展带(dai)来(lai)无限可能。目前(qian),人工智能、大(da)数据(ju)技(ji)术手段在中药(yao)材质量(liang)追溯(su)系(xi)统、电(dian)子交易市(shi)场等方面(mian)已经开始了大(da)量(liang)探(tan)索和(he)实践,进一步保(bao)障了中药(yao)材源头(tou)可追溯(su)以(yi)及优质药(yao)材的交易畅(chang)通(tong)(tong)。例(li)如,河北省安国市(shi)立足与互联网深度(du)融合,构建(jian)数字中药(yao)都(dou)中央(yang)交易大(da)厅,以(yi)种植示范基地、种植规范体系(xi)、流通(tong)(tong)标(biao)准体系(xi)、质量(liang)追溯(su)体系(xi)等为核心(xin),推(tui)动(dong)中药(yao)产业链转型升(sheng)级。

同时,由于中(zhong)(zhong)医药在新冠肺(fei)炎(yan)疫情防控救治工作中(zhong)(zhong)效果显(xian)著,对进一步扩大中(zhong)(zhong)成药及中(zhong)(zhong)药材(cai)的市(shi)场规模也产生了(le)积极的作用。

 

产业发(fa)展前(qian)景(jing)可期

道地(di)药材、生(sheng)态种(zhong)植(zhi)、区(qu)域品牌打造(zao)将成为(wei)越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)多优势(shi)区(qu)域发展中(zhong)药材种(zhong)植(zhi)产业的(de)标准(zhun)配置要素。公开资料显示(shi),全国已有21个省(区(qu)、市)约60余种(zhong)中(zhong)药材开展了生(sheng)态种(zhong)植(zhi)的(de)探索和实践,各地(di)区(qu)通过采用模(mo)仿野生(sheng)生(sheng)境的(de)生(sheng)态种(zhong)植(zhi)方式(shi),从源头上有效提(ti)升了中(zhong)药材质(zhi)量安全。

同(tong)时,一些省(区(qu)、市(shi))也利用数字(zi)化(hua)(hua)(hua)手段推动种(zhong)植、加工等环节(jie)(jie)标(biao)准(zhun)化(hua)(hua)(hua),提(ti)升种(zhong)植生产管理效(xiao)益,构建畅通(tong)交易(yi)平台,实现产业(ye)提(ti)质增效(xiao)。在种(zhong)植与加工标(biao)准(zhun)化(hua)(hua)(hua)方面,通(tong)过利用互联网、人工智能等技术,实现中药材(cai)种(zhong)植智能化(hua)(hua)(hua)、产地(di)加工现代化(hua)(hua)(hua);在中药材(cai)交易(yi)畅通(tong)方面,充分运用物联网、区(qu)块链(lian)等新(xin)技术,解决传(chuan)统中药材(cai)贸易(yi)集(ji)散式交易(yi)所带来的(de)流(liu)通(tong)环节(jie)(jie)长(zhang)、交易(yi)成(cheng)(cheng)本高等问题,简化(hua)(hua)(hua)流(liu)通(tong)环节(jie)(jie),降低(di)流(liu)通(tong)成(cheng)(cheng)本。

不(bu)(bu)容忽视(shi)的是,人口老(lao)龄化(hua)、消(xiao)费升(sheng)级(ji)推动产业(ye)链延伸(shen),药食(shi)(shi)同源、保(bao)(bao)健(jian)(jian)食(shi)(shi)品(pin)(pin)(pin)等大健(jian)(jian)康(kang)领域衍(yan)生(sheng)品(pin)(pin)(pin)不(bu)(bu)断(duan)涌现。一(yi)方面(mian),人口老(lao)龄化(hua)将在未来几十年内进一(yi)步加剧,且(qie)慢性疾病患病率(lv)(lv)逐年上升(sheng);另一(yi)方面(mian),近20年来,城镇和农村居民(min)医疗保(bao)(bao)健(jian)(jian)支出年均复合增(zeng)长率(lv)(lv)日益增(zeng)高,对保(bao)(bao)健(jian)(jian)食(shi)(shi)品(pin)(pin)(pin)的需求增(zeng)长显著。同时,在国家(jia)政策(ce)的不(bu)(bu)断(duan)完善之(zhi)下,预(yu)计到2022年,中药大健(jian)(jian)康(kang)领域衍(yan)生(sheng)品(pin)(pin)(pin)的产业(ye)规(gui)模将达到近3000亿元,且(qie)未来增(zeng)长迅(xun)速。尤(you)其是药食(shi)(shi)同源的药品(pin)(pin)(pin)、以中药为(wei)原材料(liao)或添加中药原材料(liao)制成的保(bao)(bao)健(jian)(jian)食(shi)(shi)品(pin)(pin)(pin)、中药类食(shi)(shi)品(pin)(pin)(pin)等大健(jian)(jian)康(kang)衍(yan)生(sheng)品(pin)(pin)(pin)将极(ji)具潜力,北(bei)京同仁堂、江中集团、东阿阿胶等国内中药龙头企业(ye)现已(yi)纷纷布局(ju),抢占(zhan)市场(chang)。

 

制约因素不容忽视(shi)

与此同时,还有一些制约中(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)材(cai)种植(zhi)产业发展(zhan)的因素不容(rong)(rong)忽(hu)视。例如在(zai)(zai)中(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)材(cai)种植(zhi)环(huan)节,存在(zai)(zai)过(guo)度使用农药(yao)、任(ren)意缩(suo)短种植(zhi)年限(xian)等(deng)不规范种植(zhi)行为,还有环(huan)境污染(ran)导致的重金(jin)属超标等(deng)安全问(wen)题;在(zai)(zai)中(zhong)(zhong)药(yao)材(cai)交(jiao)易(yi)流通(tong)环(huan)节,一方(fang)面传统市场上商家以次充好的现象依然存在(zai)(zai),另一方(fang)面仓储条件(jian)简陋,药(yao)材(cai)污染(ran)等(deng)问(wen)题也不容(rong)(rong)忽(hu)视;产业整体(ti)呈现出“低(di)小散”格局(ju),规范化(hua)、集约化(hua)发展(zhan)任(ren)重道远(yuan)。

目前(qian),我国多(duo)数地(di)(di)区(qu)中(zhong)药(yao)(yao)材(cai)(cai)种植仍处(chu)于“一(yi)家(jia)一(yi)户”的分散化(hua)经营阶(jie)段(duan),农场式、合(he)作(zuo)社等(deng)中(zhong)药(yao)(yao)农业组(zu)织模式尚处(chu)于起步(bu)和(he)探索阶(jie)段(duan)。此(ci)外,国家(jia)层面的道地(di)(di)药(yao)(yao)材(cai)(cai)生产(chan)基地(di)(di)认(ren)证工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)尚未(wei)正式启(qi)动,而集约化(hua)发展则需(xu)要时间积累(lei)和(he)沉淀。中(zhong)药(yao)(yao)材(cai)(cai)种植产(chan)业各个(ge)环节尚未(wei)充分融合(he),形成有(you)效衔(xian)接。国内(nei)多(duo)数地(di)(di)区(qu)产(chan)出(chu)的中(zhong)药(yao)(yao)材(cai)(cai)仅(jin)作(zuo)为(wei)原材(cai)(cai)料(liao)出(chu)售(shou),种植环节与(yu)加工(gong)(gong)、流(liu)通(tong)、销售(shou)等(deng)环节尚未(wei)实现有(you)效衔(xian)接,存在跟风种植而造成供需(xu)不(bu)平衡(heng)的现象。同时,中(zhong)药(yao)(yao)材(cai)(cai)产(chan)品(pin)以次充好等(deng)问(wen)题,也应(ying)引起重(zhong)视。

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